In software development security should be:
A: Added on later.
B: Added when we are compromised.
C: Designed into the software.
D: Added only in important areas.
CBK 8: Software Development Security
Source: ThorTeaches.com practice tests
C: Security should be designed into the software and be part of the initial requirements just as functionality is. The more breaches and compromises more we see the move towards security being part of the scope of the software design project. We use software, at our jobs, our personal lives, our homes, cars, power, water … It is everywhere and it has been and still is common to write functional code, security is an afterthought or not considered at all.
Most large organizations use role based access control, your access levels are determined by your job role.
Even if you have access to the data you may not be allowed to access it unless required by what you are working on, this is called need to know.
- Need to know:
- Just because you have access does not mean you are allowed the data.
- You need a valid reason for accessing the data. If you do not have one you can be terminated/sued/jailed/fined.
- Leaked information about Octomom Natalie Suleman cost 15 Kaiser employees fines or terminations, they had no valid reason for accessing her file.
- We may never know who actually leaked the information. It may not be one of the 15, but they violated HIPAA by accessing the data without a need to know.
Another approach is giving employees as little as possible access, just enough for them to do their job.
- Least privilege:
- Users have the minimum necessary access to perform their job duties.
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A smoke photoelectric detector detects what?
A: The infrared light emitted from a fire.
B: A change in the light indicating higher particle density.
C: A rise in temperature indicating a fire.
D: If the light is off in the data center.
CBK 3: Security Engineering
Source: ThorTeaches.com practice tests
B: Smoke Detectors: Photoelectric uses LED (Light Emitting Diode) and a photoelectric sensor that produces a small charge while receiving light. Triggers when smoke or any higher particle density interrupts the light.
When we no longer need a certain media, we must dispose of it in a manner that ensures the data can’t be retrieved. This pertains to both electronic media and paper copies of data.
- Paper disposal.
- It is highly encouraged to dispose of ANY paper with any data on it in a secure manner.
- This also has standards and cross shredding is recommended.
- It is easy to scan and have a program re-assemble documents from normal shreds like the this one.
- Digital disposal – The digital disposal procedures are determined by the type of media.
- Deleting, Formatting and Overwriting (Soft destruction):
- Deleting a file just removes it from the table; everything is still recoverable.
- Formatting does the same but it also puts a new file structure over the old one. Still recoverable in most cases.
- Overwriting is done by writing 0’s or random characters over the data.
- As far as we know there is no tool available that can recover even single pass overwriting (not possible on damaged media).
- Degaussing destroys magnetic media by exposing it to a very strong magnetic field.
- This will also most likely destroy the media integrity.
- Full physical destruction is safer than soft destruction:
- Disk Crushers do exactly what their name implies: they crush disks (often used on spinning disks).
- Shredders do the same thing as paper shredders do, they just work on metal.
- These are rare to have at normal organizations, but you can buy the service.
- Incineration, pulverizing, melting and acid are also (very rarely) used to ensure full data destruction.
- It is common to do multiple types of data destruction on sensitive data (both degaussing and disk crushing/shredding).
- While it may not be necessary, it is a lot cheaper than a potential $1,000,000 fine or loss of proprietary technology or state secrets.
Data, System, Mission Ownership, Custodians and Users:
Each role has unique roles and responsibilities to keep the data safe.
- Mission/Business Owner:
- Senior executives make the policies that govern our data security.
- Data/Information Owner:
- Management level, they assign sensitivity labels and backup frequency.
- This could be you or a Data Owner from HR, Payroll or other departments.
- System Owner:
- Management level and the owner of the systems that house the data.
- Often a Data Center Manager or an Infrastructure Manager.
- Data Custodian:
- These are the technical hands-on employees who do the backups, restores, patches, system configuration.
- They follow the directions of the Data Owner.
- These are the users of the data.
- User awareness must be trained; they need to know what is acceptable and what is not acceptable, and the consequences for not following the policies, procedures and standards.
- Data Controllers and Data Processors:
- Controllers create and manage sensitive data in the organization (HR/Payroll)
- Processors manage the data for Controllers (Outsourced Payroll)