CyberSecurity from BBC “More than 1,000 attacks reported in center’s first year”

Many cyber-attacks ‘a significant threat’

More than 1,000 incidents were reported to the National Cyber Security Centre in its first year of operation.

The centre – part of the intelligence agency GCHQ – says more than half the incidents posed a significant threat.

None of the incidents was category one level involving interference with the democratic system or crippling critical infrastructure such as power.

But NCSC head Ciaran Martin warned there could be more significant and damaging attacks in the near future.


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CISSP certification: Intellectual Property.

Intellectual Property:

  • Copyright © – (Exceptions: first sale, fair use).
    • Books, Art, Music, Software.
    • Automatically granted and lasts 70 years after creator’s death or 95 years after creation by/for corporations.
  • Trademarks ™ and ® (Registered Trademark).
    • Brand Names, Logos, Slogans – Must be registered, is valid for 10 years at a time, can be renewed indefinitely.
  • Patents: Protects inventions for 20 years (normally) – Cryptography algorithms can be patented.
    • Inventions must be:
      • Novel (New idea no one has had before).
      • Useful (It is actually possible to use and it is useful to someone).
      • Nonobvious (Inventive work involved).
  • Trade Secrets. 
    • You tell no one about your formula, your secret sauce. If discovered anyone can use it; you are not protected.

Attacks on Intellectual Property:

  • Copyright.
    • Piracy – Software piracy is by far the most common attack on Intellectual Property.
    • Copyright Infringement – Use of someone else’s copyrighted material, often songs and images.
  • Trademarks.
    • Counterfeiting – Fake Rolexes, Prada, Nike, Apple products – Either using the real name or a very similar name.
  • Patents.
    • Patent infringement – Using someone else’s patent in your product without permission.
  • Trade Secrets.
    • While a organization can do nothing if their Trade Secret is discovered, how it is done can be illegal.
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IT Security from “Cybersecurity becoming big ESG concern”

Cost of breaches puts issue at forefront of asset owners’ agenda.

Cybersecurity is becoming big ESG (Enterprise Strategy Group) concern.

Cybersecurity is moving up the agenda for institutional investors and their money managers as a responsible investment consideration, as several high-profile attacks and breaches bring the issue to the front of investors’ minds.

Sources at retirement plans and money management firms said the issue is being considered in particular when thinking through environmental, social and governance factors within investment portfolios.


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CISSP Practice question #2

In software development security should be:
A: Added on later.
B: Added when we are compromised.
C: Designed into the software.
D: Added only in important areas.

CBK 8: Software Development Security
Source: practice tests


C: Security should be designed into the software and be part of the initial requirements just as functionality is. The more breaches and compromises more we see the move towards security being part of the scope of the software design project. We use software, at our jobs, our personal lives, our homes, cars, power, water … It is everywhere and it has been and still is common to write functional code, security is an afterthought or not considered at all.

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CISSP certification: Need to know and least privilege.

Most large organizations use role based access control, your access levels are determined by your job role. 

Even if you have access to the data you may not be allowed to access it unless required by what you are working on, this is called need to know.

  • Need to know:
    • Just because you have access does not mean you are allowed the data.
    • You need a valid reason for accessing the data. If you do not have one you can be terminated/sued/jailed/fined.
    • Leaked information about Octomom Natalie Suleman cost 15 Kaiser employees fines or terminations, they had no valid reason for accessing her file.
      • We may never know who actually leaked the information. It may not be one of the 15, but they violated HIPAA by accessing the data without a need to know.

Another approach is giving employees as little as possible access, just enough for them to do their job.

  • Least privilege:
    • Users have the minimum necessary access to perform their job duties.
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CISSP Certification: Competition time – Win a CISSP practice test!

Competition time!

Enter to win a free CISSP Practice exam.


To enter you must do all these 3 to be eligible (+3 entries).

  1. Join my Facebook group
  2. Join our free member page, make sure your FB and member page name match.
  3. Like and comment on this post in the Facebook group.

1. Share the Facebook group post on your Facebook wall (+5 entries).

The Winner will be drawn at random after the competition is over and announced in the Facebook group!
If you already own all 4 practice tests, we can do a amazon gift card instead, but this only available to people with all 4 tests.
The competition ends October 8th at 12:00 HST (noon).

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CISSP Practice question #1

A smoke photoelectric detector detects what?
A: The infrared light emitted from a fire.
B: A change in the light indicating higher particle density.
C: A rise in temperature indicating a fire.
D: If the light is off in the data center.

CBK 3: Security Engineering
Source: practice tests


B: Smoke Detectors: Photoelectric uses LED (Light Emitting Diode) and a photoelectric sensor that produces a small charge while receiving light. Triggers when smoke or any higher particle density interrupts the light.

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CISSP Certification – from (ISC)² “Three Reasons Why Cybersecurity Certifications are Essential”

Three Reasons Why Cybersecurity Certifications are Essential

Other than a college degree, how can you validate your knowledge and skills? Certifications represent a way for professionals to validate their knowledge and expertise, as well as a path for continued education and professional development. But what about value? Why are cybersecurity certifications essential today? What is the value of a cybersecurity certification? Proves Your Worth According to the 2017 (ISC)² Global Information Security Workforce Study (GISWS), when respondents were asked for the reasons why their organization requires staff to have information security certifications, employee competence was the most common answer. You can spend years working to prove your…


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CISSP certification: Data disposal.

Data Destruction:

When we no longer need a certain media, we must dispose of it in a manner that ensures the data can’t be retrieved. This pertains to both electronic media and paper copies of data.

  • Paper disposal.
    • It is highly encouraged to dispose of ANY paper with any data on it in a secure manner.
    • This also has standards and cross shredding is recommended.
    • It is easy to scan and have a program re-assemble documents from normal shreds like the this one.
  • Digital disposal – The digital disposal procedures are determined by the type of media.
    • Deleting, Formatting and Overwriting (Soft destruction):
      • Deleting a file just removes it from the table; everything is still recoverable.
      • Formatting does the same but it also puts a new file structure over the old one. Still recoverable in most cases.
      • Overwriting is done by writing 0’s or random characters over the data.
        • As far as we know there is no tool available that can recover even single pass overwriting (not possible on damaged media).
    • Degaussing destroys magnetic media by exposing it to a very strong magnetic field.
      • This will also most likely destroy the media integrity.
    • Full physical destruction is safer than soft destruction:
      • Disk Crushers do exactly what their name implies: they crush disks (often used on spinning disks).
      • Shredders do the same thing as paper shredders do, they just work on metal.
        • These are rare to have at normal organizations, but you can buy the service.
      • Incineration, pulverizing, melting and acid are also (very rarely) used to ensure full data destruction.
  • It is common to do multiple types of data destruction on sensitive data (both degaussing and disk crushing/shredding).
  • While it may not be necessary, it is a lot cheaper than a potential $1,000,000 fine or loss of proprietary technology or state secrets.
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